Community is our Heart

In these uncertain times, Kirkland Civic Orchestra’s desire to make music is not diminished, nor is our desire to bring that music to our community. With physical distancing measures in place that make rehearsing together a logistical nightmare (imagine 70 players separated by 6 feet–that’s a big space!), we’ve looked at using click tracks and other technologies, and have found them impractical for our group.

So we’re taking a leaf from the scores of other performing arts groups, and are digging into our archives. We’ve been recording concerts for years, but have never had the impetus to actually do the post-production work and rendering. With ample time on our hands, we’re planning a “virtual season” of four special broadcasts of past recordings using Facebook Live. Simply go to our Facebook page to view them!

  • April 26, 2020, 3 pm (PST) – Reprise of Frenemies, Part I: Brahm’s Symphony No. 2. [watch now]
  • May 31, 2020, 3 pm (PST) – Reprise of Russian Masters, Part I: Russian Easter Festival Overture, Op. 36 (Rimsky-Korsakov); Andante cantabile from String Quartet No. 1 in D Major, Op. 11 (Tchaikovsky); Violin Concerto No. 3 in B Minor, Op. 61 (Saint-Saëns),which features local favorite and award-winning violinist Charlotte Marckx of the Sempre Sisters. [watch now]
  • June 28, 2020, 3 pm (PST) – Reprise of Frenemies, Part II:  Tchaikovsky’s Violin concerto, featuring again local favorite and award-winning violinist Charlotte Marckx of the Sempre Sisters. [watch now]
  • July 26, 2020, 3 pm (PST) – Reprise of Russian Masters, Part II: Symphony No. 12 in D Minor, Op. 112 (Shostakovich)  

We hope that these few hours of classical music help soothe your souls and bring you a little bit of the joy we had in performing them. Recordings will be posted afterward on our YouTube channel so you can continue to enjoy them.

P.S. Depending on how physical distancing measures change between now and summer, we’re hoping to perform at the Ballard Locks on August 30–watch our social media channels for the most up-to-date information!

KCO at the Locks 2020

The Kirkland Civic Orchestra plays annually as a part of the Hiram M. Chittenden Locks Summer Concert Series.

Come for a mix of popular, movie and patriotic selections!

Details: TBD, June/July 2020 2:00 PM – 3:00 PM PDT Hiram M. Chittenden [Ballard] Locks 3015 NW 54th St, Seattle, WA 98107

[Facebook event coming soon]

Concerts cancelled

Good news and bad news:

The bad news, which should come as no surprise, is that we are also cancelling our May 31 Concert. Given the ongoing physical distancing needed to combat the pandemic, we would not have enough rehearsals to present a concert that we could be proud of.

The good news is that we are working towards another rebroadcast on Facebook Live! If we can get that working, we’re hoping to put on several “virtual flashbacks.”

Stay tuned for more updates!

In the meantime, please enjoy a recording of one of our concerts from March 19, 2017. Tuba Concert in F minor by Ralph Vaughan Williams, with soloist J.c. Sherman on YouTube at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S0mhQheGURw&feature=youtu.be&fbclid=IwAR1v-7MQDIMNK6Xvp8CeeTX4AHmHOsERDx8QkhAS0Dt-enpZlHSf34izFoY

We are looking forward to the time when we can again play for you in person!

Wishing you the best to stay healthy and safe from our Kirkland Civic Orchestra family to yours!

Christmas Traditions 2019

Details: Tuesday, December 3, 2019 7:30 PM – 9:30 PM PDT Benaroya Hall

Program: The Northwest University Concert and Chamber Choirs and Coro Amici, joined by the Pilgrim’s Men’s Chorus and the Kirkland Civic Orchestra, present Christmas Traditions at Benaroya Hall.

Celebrating over a decade of annual performances, this established concert celebrates the traditions of Christmas. Features include new carol arrangements and traditional selections with Christmas carol sing-a-longs.

Tickets: https://www.seattlesymphony.org/concerttickets/calendar/2019-2020/benaroyahall/christmas-traditions

Piano Soloist – Cori Belle

Cori Belle will play the Mendelssohn #2 at our next performance. She is a musician and a mom. We discussed her playing, her upcoming performance, and some thoughts on her social media presence.

  1. When did you start playing music and did you start with the piano?
  2. When did you know you wanted to head towards a life of music?
  3. What’s your connection to the Kirkland Orchestra?
  4. Why did you choose Mendelssohn #2, or how did that happen?
  5. What is the connection to Beethoven?
  6. Could you talk a little about the role of social media for you as a performer?

KCO: When did you start playing music and did you start with the piano?

Cori: I did start with the piano. My parents both play. My dad started studying with a professor at the university while in high school. He was then able to continue studying with the same person after he graduated from high school – kind of under the table. My dad got a very good music education in college without having to major in it. My mom was a church musician as well as a piano teacher. She was my first teacher and that lasted about maybe a year.

KCO: Was that around here?

Cori: No, we lived in Oregon at the time. As is common with moms and daughters, that didn’t last very long (laughter) and so she traded me off to her friend, another piano teacher. And her friend taught me, and my mom taught her friend’s kids piano. This was a great solution for both moms.

Cori:. My mom tells me I learned by ear first, and she taught me some chords to go with melodies.

KCO: And this is what age?

Cori: I don’t know. Before school, maybe 5. Then formal lessons around first grade. Those continued forever. I went through a variety of teachers.

We moved to Arizona when I was in fifth grade. In junior high, I had my music teacher from school teaching me. That wasn’t real challenging. I wasn’t practicing. I was sight reading through my lessons and then leaving it. My mom called Arizona State University and asked for a recommendation for a teacher and that led me to Barbara Stoutenburgh, who’s still teaching. She prepared me for college.

She created a program that is now part of the Arizona Music Teachers Association. It’s a standard piano curriculum with a theory background and performance opportunities. It was amazing. I never had a teacher like her. She really got me on track.

You asked me if I played other instruments. No, it was always piano. I wanted to specialize. I think it takes a lifetime to really learn an instrument, especially with piano.

KCO: If you end up playing the viola or the bassoon, it’s not usually where you start.

Cori: Sure. I had opportunities to dabble with harpsichord or even organ and those, they’re completely different instruments. They have the same keyboard, but a different technique and a different literature. There’s so much music for piano, that’s what I studied for.

KCO: When did you know you wanted to head towards a life of music? Would you call yourself a professional musician?

Cori: I have a hard time with that term (laughter).

KCO: I do too, actually, so let’s say when you decided to become more serious.

Cori: My sophomore year of high school I got involved in choir. It was actually because I liked a boy who was in the top chamber group, and he introduced me to the choir teacher and said, “you’ve got to go play for her,” so I went and played. She said, “you’re hired!” It happened during my prep period. I had it free, so I went and played for the top chamber group every day at school for a year and that morphed into the next three years of playing for as many choirs as I could at the school, and playing for all their school musicals, sitting in their pit orchestra.

Our district was really arts centric, and they offered a concerto competition at one point. I applied and won and got to play with members of the Phoenix symphony, a Mozart piano concerto.

Choir got me hooked. I just loved accompanying. I loved the challenge of it. I loved the repertoire we did. We did Rutter’s Gloria. We did major works.

KCO: One of the things you get when you’re an accompanist, which I think is also a little different from a piano soloist, is you get to play with other people. It’s a way to be social, but also a different musical setting. I’ve done some singing, and I’ve played solo literature with piano accompanist. It’s a different mentality to be an accompanist. When you’re in music school, finding your accompanist is a big deal, so that’s cool. I can see how that would hook you.

Cori: Yeah, so that’s when I decided, maybe junior year, I was talking to my piano teacher and found out, oh this could actually be a living. I could be an accompanist and get paid for it. And I did get paid for it in high school, so I guess you could say I’ve been professional since then (laughter), if that’s your definition.

KCO: Was it the success as an accompanist that gave you the of external validation? That insight you get when someone else says you are capable of doing this. Was that the moment?

Cori: I think I got that validation from my peers, too. All of a sudden, I had this group of people that loved me and loved music, you know? We loved that same thing. Getting paid was sort of a bonus. It wasn’t something I was looking for.

I majored in piano performance, not in accompanying. I thought I wanted to do accompanying, but the professor I ended up studying with suggested I study piano performance. You’ll get all the technique and you’ll learn the literature, and then you can still do accompanying on the side.

You can still learn the languages and play for singers and do all that, but it’s harder to go the other way, just studying the accompanying. You don’t always—and it might have changed, this was twenty years ago—but you don’t always get the best professor. You don’t always get the same focus on solo literature because you just don’t have time. When they know you have the skill that they need, you go to college and other students find out you’re an accompanist: every singer needs an accompanist. All the instrumentalists need an accompanist. The choirs need an accompanist. That can completely consume your time.

KCO: Right! Where was this?

Cori: I was at Grand Canyon University in Arizona. At the time it was a huge, great music department and it’s since changed. I don’t think it has as much of a classical focus now. It has more of a worship production focus.  The students will write, perform, and record their own CDs on campus and Christian worship music. There’s still a choir. They’re still doing some classical. I’ve noticed some of my professors coming back after hiatus, so I’m hopeful that it comes back. It was such a rich place for me to learn.

KCO: What’s your connection to the Kirkland Orchestra? How did you get involved with that?

Cori: I had played for Kirkland Choral Society for the last four years, and Kathy Truer is one of the singers. Jim comes to all the concerts and after one concert, about a year or two ago, he came up to me and asked if I would be interested in playing a concerto someday. I said sure.

Then life happened, and so a year or two later, we got back together, and he said, “do you want to do this this season? Are you ready? Let’s sit down and talk.” So we did!.

Kathy, she talks about the orchestra all the time, all the soloists and everything.

KCO: That is fantastic. Why did you choose Mendelssohn #2, or how did that happen?

Cori: Jim and I sat down, and I knew he wanted to do Beethoven focus this year, so we talked about the Beethoven fourth. We also talked about the Schumann A minor piano concerto, which I love. And then the Mendelssohn, and so time constraints were part of the conversation. What would fit well within a good program for the orchestra, and the connection to Beethoven. Jim wanted to make sure it was there, and the size of the orchestra, just making it fit.

KCO: What is the connection to Beethoven?

Cori: I don’t know what Jim would say (laughter). The one that I found is, they both use this three-note pattern, and Beethoven goes down a minor third for a symphony. Mendelssohn brings it up and it’s a completely lighthearted, different feel. But he plays with that same motif of notes.

KCO: With the Mendelssohn, my impression is that it is really technical, which surprised me. What are your impressions of the Mendelssohn? To me, even though it’s romantic, it has a lot of classical elements and a focus on scale play.

Cori: Mendelssohn in general, he did all the Songs without Words. He did a lot for voice and piano. His sister did a lot for voice and piano, so those soaring melodies are really what drew me first. This is a piece that I studied in college. I studied both the Mendelssohn concertos, 1 and 2. I like fast finger work. I like the challenge of that. It’s fun; it’s exciting.

KCO: Oh, one hundred percent! I think it’s a sort of trapeze act when I listen to it.

Cori: I read something this morning: Robert Schumann looked at the score, the Mendelssohn second, and didn’t think there was anything for virtuoso pianists to play. He thought this has all been done. It is not challenging. It is not impressive. Even Mendelssohn wasn’t really happy with what he did. I even had a fellow pianist comment to me, “oh that’s such a cute concerto,” and as I’ve been working with it even more, I think there is nothing cute about this, it’s really difficult (laughter).

KCO: What else appeals to you?

Cori: He trades the melody between hands so while you’re doing the sixteenth notes, continuously, you’re also supposed to bring out those quarter note melody that alternates between the hands. Creating the balance between those is another trick. In the end, it is a challenge to make it all sound easy, and effortless. It’s easy to play fast notes, but to play them and carry along the melody, and make it seem like it’s no effort at all, is really difficult.

I don’t know if you knew, he wrote it on his honeymoon. I feel like that’s  present in there, and that’s where I get the emotional cues. I think sometimes he’s in conversation with his wife. I think there’s a male voice sometimes and a female voice sometimes.

The whole second movement I feel like is a love story between the two of them, so tender. And then the last one, somebody called fireworks. I think it’s just part of the ecstasy of new love and you’re on your honeymoon and everything’s rosy and the future is bright. I don’t know, I guess I’m a hopeless romantic in that.

But you’re right, he stays with the classical form. It’s like a sonata allegro form. He doesn’t have the angst of Beethoven or of Schubert. In fact, he died when he was 38, I think. He had a young life, but it wasn’t fraught. He didn’t deal with deafness, or syphilis like Schubert, or death. Mendelssohn seems like sort of steady, not a lot of drama. Maybe that’s why some don’t think of him as one of the major players.

KCO: Could you talk a little about the role of social media for you as a performer?

KCO: I was on your website, and I love the aesthetic. What are you thinking about your IndieMusikhaus? How does that relate to what you might want to tell people about for in the future?

Cori: I guess first and foremost, which we haven’t even talked about, I’m a mom. I have my three girls and super involved with school and their gymnastics and dance. Everything else has to kind of be periphery so even though I don’t have a full-time job where I get paid, I’m a full-time mom. That needs to be my focus and so playing for the choir is a part of my life. Indie Musikhaus is the series of house concerts that I started seven-eight years ago as a way to bring music into our home and not impact the family too much negatively. So instead of going out and playing all these concerts, I wanted to bring my friends in, and also have a chance to play.

KCO: They are in your home?

Cori: Yes, in my home. My vision is bigger, eventually I’d like it to be a circuit where Indie Musikhaus is sort of the name and the programming, but then we perform in different places. Maybe it’s not just homes, maybe it’s also retirement centers or libraries or schools. But it was a way to sort of marry my priority as a homemaker and mom with my love of music.

It’s been phenomenal. I guess the website actually started out as a personal blog of being a mom for the first time. It has morphed. I don’t want to talk so much about my kids because I want to protect their privacy. It is really music focused now. It’s become a website, https://coribelle.com/.

A couple years ago my kids started in school full time and so I decided, hey, I want to make this classical CD that I’ve been dreaming about forever. So that was the focus of my first year without my kids at home during the day. A friend of mine helped me outfit my living room with a couple of microphones and I recorded at home when they were at school. When airplanes had passed and the garbage truck, you know, it was really interesting. Some of the social media stuff has happened because I want to promote my CD. That’s on the website. That was the impetus in creating a professional Facebook page. I don’t do much beyond that. I’m not on Instagram or Twitter, it’s too much, as it is, to manage what I’ve got.

KCO: Did you work with somebody who was knowledgeable in music to create the website?

Cori: No these are all template based, so my website is based on a template by BandZoogle. Their focus is more like Indie rock bands and country music. They have such cool templates. I thought, “Why don’t I just use it for classical music and see how it turns out.”

And they update it. The neat thing with them is your content always stays the same, but you can change your template and you have a whole new look. You don’t have to recreate any of your text or images, they’re all saved. And same with Indie Musikhaus, that’s a Wix site. It’s very basic. Yeah, I’m all self-taught, figuring it out as I go.

And so, the only thing I would add is I am hoping to do more chamber music in the future. I’ve started talking to another violinist in the area and she wants to do a concert. We’ll probably start out in the Indie Musikhaus. That’s one thing I haven’t delved into very deeply. I’m really familiar with choral works and with a lot of voice arias and art song. but chamber music is next. Let’s see what this has to offer.

KCO: Thanks for talking to us.

Thanks to Cori for the Interview on October 29, 2019.

by Francis X. Langlois – tuba player in the KCO

Violin Soloist – Amnon Govrin

Amnon Govrin will play the Vaughan Williams solo The Lark Ascending at our next performance. Amnon is also a fellow musician in the KCO as the concertmaster. We discussed his upcoming performance and playing in the KCO.

When did you start playing music and why the violin?

If you were doing so much music, why not pursue music?

How did you progress from concert master to doing a solo?

Can you give your thoughts on the solo?

Do you have any thoughts or unexpected surprises about being the concertmaster or anything about the Kirkland Orchestra that you find funny?


KCO: When did you start playing music and why the violin?

Amnon: My brother started to play the piano when I was 5 (he was 9). The story in my family is that I wanted to play something too, but the violin and not the piano. Granted, it was a good choice, as I stuck with it long after my brother stopped playing the piano 5 years later.Amnon holding violin

My dad wanted to play the violin himself, but couldn’t do that in the 1920’s and 30’s and then, of course, the second world war in Romania, so he didn’t get to do that. I can imagine that even though he says that I picked the violin, he had something to do with it as well.

KCO: Where did that take you, from 5 years old onward?

A: I started playing, then after several years, my brother stopped playing the piano. I continued. When I was 12, I joined the Haifa Youth Symphony Orchestra and after a few years became the concertmaster. Then, when I went to college, I went to an engineering college, the Technion. I played in the orchestra there as the concertmaster as well. After college, I played on and off without any real consistent playing and that’s it.

KCO: Where was this?

A: I grew up in Haifa, Israel. At schools there, unless they were art schools, there wasn’t any orchestra. The municipal orchestra was a great place for all the kids from all the surrounding cities to play in an orchestra, all the instruments. A big span of ages from around 10 to 20 and sometimes beyond. We also went to Europe to do a bunch of festivals and competitions so a pretty cool experience as a teenager.

KCO: That sounds fantastic. I had similar kinds of experiences. I really cherished them.

A: The big kids take care of the little kids, there are some parents who chaperone, but it’s kind of like a big family going together, playing and meeting other people.

KCO: How did you make that decision? If you were doing so much music, why not pursue music?

A: I think that one of the things was that I saw myself as an average player, versus a very good at math and physics student. That was part of it. Another part of it was that, growing up, the PC (personal computing) revolution happened and I got a computer. Combine the two and it was a very clear decision to study computer engineering.

KCO: I think what you’re saying is you found something you’re just as passionate about, in computing.

A: Yes, and maybe even more. Another aspect of it was that I had an amount of perfectionism creep in at some point, and it was easier to achieve it at school then with music.

Letting go of perfectionism is a maturing process.

KCO: At what point do you decide to get back to playing?

A: Like I said, I played on and off, just for myself. I was picking up things here and there, playing with a few people like some folk music, bluegrass a little bit when I had people at work who played the accordion and guitar and things like that. I never completely stopped, and then when I got to Microsoft (where I work), I created a mailing list of chamber music players. That didn’t go very far.

At some point I decided to look for an orchestra, and there was the orchestra mailing list.  It was the Microsoft orchestra which is now the Kirkland Civic Orchestra. I talked with James and came to a rehearsal and I was hooked.

The thing that strikes me the most is that in my line of work and personal life – with a family of 4 kids – there is constant context switching. Coming to that first rehearsal and spending 2 hours of playing, it shut all that down. I was in a state of mind that I wasn’t in for years.

KCO: I have to say I had a similar experience. When I sat in the back row with my tuba, I thought, “I don’t have to think. I know how to do this.” I never thought about it as context switching, but that’s exactly right. It is almost automatic.

A: When you do this, you also have a very tight feedback loop around any other thoughts or other distractions. Because if you’re distracted, within 2 seconds, you will miss a note or something like that. You have too tight a feedback loop so you avoid getting distracted. It’s essentially meditative.

KCO: The Kirkland Orchestra evolved, and you become the concertmaster. How did you progress from concertmaster to doing a solo?

A: Last season, as concertmaster, I had concertmaster solo one of the pieces. It was great to do that. At the end of the season, James suggested, “we’re going to do Lark Ascending, why don’t you play the solo?”

I was a little hesitant. I told him that I’d think about it. I took 2 weeks to practice it as if I were going to do it, to see how far I can get with it. I don’t practice hours a day like I did when I had free time on my hands. I wanted to see how far I could get and extrapolate that to actually being ready for a concert. It seemed reasonable and I just loved the piece.

I knew the piece before but I of course, wasn’t as intimate with it as you become when you start playing it every day. It was fantastic. It just felt like something that I can play now, much better than I could play when I was young. Even though, technically I could play more say “fast and furious” things when I was young, because of that daily practicing and the muscle memory for things like Paganini violin Concerto or a Tchaikovsky. Things like that were available to me to pull on back then and they’re not so much now. However, now I think that the different types of sounds that I can produce is different than what I could, and better than I could do then.

KCO: Would you call that tone? Your tone is better?

A: Yes, my tone is better and more varied. Back then I think I could play the fast and the furious and now I can do the sensitive.

KCO: That’s one of the few good things about aging, I think.

A: I don’t take it out of the realm of possibilities if I again played hours a day, consistently, then I could reach some of the fast and some of the furious, but it’s not something that is available. There’s only so many hours a day and work for example.

KCO: You mentioned that you were the concertmaster in your younger days, but that doesn’t generally mean you’re also a soloist. Soloists are almost a different group of people. Did you do more solo stuff? Are you just really coming back to it now?

A: I did a few. I soloed as a violin student. I had my yearly student concert and recitals, and the final recital for finishing the conservatory.

I played very few solos with the orchestras I played in, where perfectionism turned stage nerves made these experiences something that I had the urge to do but ended up feeling like I could have done better. It’s a part of what makes Lark Ascending feel right – it’s an expansive, flexible piece that takes a different ratio of artistic lines and technique than many others, a piece that requires the breathing and maturity that I feel I have now compared to my youth.

KCO: Great. I wanted to give you a chance to give your thoughts on the solo.

A: I’m a bit disappointed to play it with the sheet music. In my youth, by the time I knew how to play something, I knew it without the music. Lark Ascending is also a piece of music unlike most that I played as a kid, when technique was easier for me to learn and the pieces I played took me on that path.

One thing that I didn’t tell you that I think is a little amusing, is that when I became concertmaster of Kirkland Civic, this is essentially the first time I get paid for playing music. I took that first check and I framed it and jokingly because it says, “I’m a professional musician, regardless of anything else.”

Playing solo, relates to that a little bit and it’s really exciting to take on a piece like that because it’s a piece that requires ⅔ maturity and ⅓ technique.

It has its technique. It has its high notes: the E string and some fast stuff and difficult parts to it. However, if that’s the only thing that you do with this piece, then it’s a huge disappointment.

Listening to a bunch of different versions of it, of other people playing it over the course of this year, made this very clear to me that that was the case because there were people who played it flawlessly technique-wise, but it was just not there. It wasn’t connecting. I’m hoping at least that I can bring out the emotional pieces there and make people connect with that piece, which is something that I don’t think that I ever did as a kid.

KCO: Last question, do you have any thoughts or unexpected surprises about being the concertmaster or anything about the Kirkland Orchestra that you find funny?

A: Kirkland Orchestra is unique in the sense that it’s a not an orchestra where you come and audition. It essentially accepts everyone who wants it enough to sit there and play in the orchestra. Coming from a place where I, as a kid, I had a recital every year and I finished the conservatory, I actually now know more about the level that I’ve reached than I was realizing then.

I have to say that I was a bit skeptical in the beginning, but I think it’s what comes out of the orchestra at concert time. What James in his wisdom is capable of getting out of us as a group is pretty amazing. I’m definitely proud to be part of this orchestra and definitely overcame my skepticism early on.

Being concertmaster is interesting, it’s fun, it’s a little stressful because you know, I have no one to come to, but myself and of course James. It’s here specifically I do more I think, bowing, than I have done in the past. Maybe the reason is that in the past orchestras that I’ve been in, we’ve played things that were more on the beaten path, than symphonies and concerti for violin or piano that have been played again and again and again. There was much less need to think about it before starting rehearsals as opposed to the pieces that James picks.

One of my pleasant surprises was to realize how technology helps us with this, because when I was last playing with an orchestra in the early 90’s, we were very far from having the scenario of using a computer to put markings on parts and then printing that. The parts were all original parts that had to be manually marked. There were none of these capabilities that we have right now.

Jim puts stuff on OneDrive, I take it off there. I mark it with my laptop that has a pen. Jim gets it right away. This was an interesting kind of connection between the technical world and the musical world. Two worlds that were 100% separate from one another before.

KCO: Same for me. I’m used to show up; they give you a book; you go back there. At the end of the night, you give them the book back. All of a sudden I can download my parts! What? I was blown away by that.

A: Yeah, and the fact that, I can tell you that there must be someone who is a musician in the team that does Edge at Microsoft, because all you need to mark music is Edge. It has not only a pdf reader, that’s pretty mundane, but you can also set it to show 2 pages and you can tell it to essentially flip pages like they’re a book of music. You can say whether the first page is by itself or with the second page. Essentially you mimic the physical sheet music. I can tell you that when I practice the orchestra pieces, I just sit in front of my monitor and have the music there. I don’t even pull out the actual sheet music that we’re playing in the rehearsal.

KCO: I don’t do that, but that sounds fantastic.

A: There must be someone who’s a musician because this is a purely musical scenario versus just reading a pdf. With a normal pdf document, you could just scroll it and you wouldn’t care about pagination and about first page being separate or not.

Thanks to Amnon on May 14th for some proofreading and clarifications.

Interview on May 10, 2019 by Francis X. Langlois – tuba player in the KCO